Lo imperfecto es enemigo de lo bueno: leyes antielusión versus innovación de usuario abierta


  • Wendy Seltzer Berkman Center for Internet & Society, Harvard University


La gestión de derechos digitales (DRM, por sus siglas en inglés), el control tecnológico, respaldado legalmente, del uso de obras protegidas por derechos de autor, es claramente imperfecta: a menudo no logra detener la piratería y frecuentemente bloquea usos no infractores. Sin embargo, el impulso para corregir estas imperfecciones oculta un conflicto más profundo entre el sistema DRM antielusión y el desarrollo abierto en todo el entorno de los medios digitales. Este conflicto, que está en el corazón de los DRM, se profundizará incluso si otros aspectos de los DRM puedan ser mejorados. El presente artículo da una mirada sistémica al entorno legal, técnico y comercial de los DRM para destacar este conflicto y sus efectos.

Palabras clave:

Derecho de autor, gestión de derechos digitales, antielusión, medidas tecnológicas de protección, innovación abierta, innovación de usuario.

Biografía del autor/a

Wendy Seltzer, Berkman Center for Internet & Society, Harvard University

Wendy Seltzer pertenece al Berkman Center for Internet & Society de la Harvard University, y al Silicon Flatirons Center de la University of Colorado Law School, Estados Unidos.


Armstrong, Timothy K. (2006). «Digital Rights Management and the Process of Fair Use». Harvard Journal of Law & Technology, 20(1): 49-121.

Anderson, Chris (2006). The Long Tail. Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More. Nueva York: Hyperion.

Aufterheide, Patricia, y Peter Jaszi (2004). Untold Stories. Creative Consequences of the Rights Clearance Culture for Documentary Filmmakers. Disponible en <http://www.centerforsocialmedia.org/files/pdf/untoldstories_report.pdf>.

Baldwin, Carliss Y., y Kim B. Clark (2000). Design Rules. Vol. 1: The Power of Modularity. Cambridge: The mitPress.

Bambauer, Derek (2007). «Faulty Math: The Economics of Legalizing ‘The Grey Album’». Alabama Law Review, 59.

Bell, Tom (1998). «Fair Use vs. Fared Use: The Impact of Automated Rights Management on Copyright’s Fair Use Doctrine». North Carolina Law Review, 76
Benkler, Yochai (1999). «Free as the Air to Common Use: First Amendment Constraints on Enclosure of the Public Domain». New York University Law Review, 74.

Benkler, Yochai (2001). «The Battle over the Institutional Ecosystem in the Digital Environment». Communications of the ACM, 44 (2): 84-90
Benkler, Yochai (2002). «Coase’s Penguin, or Linux and The Nature of the Firm». Yale Law Journal, 112.

Benkler, Yochai (2003). «Freedom in the Commons. Towards a Political Economy of Information». Duke Law Journal, 52.
Benkler, Yochai (2007). The Wealth of Networks. How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom. Yale University Press.

Berlind, David (2002). «Open Source: IBM’s Deadly Weapon, ZDNET». 8
de abril. Disponible en <http://news.zdnet.com/2100-10532_22-296366.html>.

Biddle, Peter y otros (2002). «The Darknet and the Future of Content Distribution». En Joan Feigenbaum (ed.), Digital Rights Management Workshop. Washington: ACM.

Bower, Joseph L. y otros (1995). «Disruptive Technologies: Catching the wave». Harvard Business Review, enero-febrero.

Boyle, James (2008). The Public Domain: Enclosing the Commons of the Mind. New Heaven: Yale University Press.

Bresnahan, Timothy F. y Manuel Trajtenberg (1995). «General Purpose Technologies: ‘Engines of Growth’?», Journal of Econometrics, 65.

Bryers, Simon y otros (2003). «Analysis of Security Vulnerabilities in the Movie Production and Distribution Proces’s». En Moti Yung (ed.), Digital Rights Management Workshop. Washington: ACM.

Burk, Dan L., y Mark A. Lemley (2009). The Patent Crisis and How the Courts Can Solve it. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press.

Burk, Dan L., y Julie E. Cohen (2001). «Fair Use Infrastructure for Rights Management Systems». Harvard Journal of Law & Technology, 15 (19): 41-83.}

Burrows, Peter (2008). «DoubleTwist is Dancing in Dangerous Legal Territory». Business Week, 19 de febrero. Disponible en <http://www.businessweek.com/technology/ByteOfTheApple/blog/-archives/2008/02/doubletwist_is.html/>.

Christensen, Clayton M. (1997). The Innovator’s Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. Nueva York: Harvard Business Review Press.

Christensen, Clayton M., y Michael E. Raynor (2003). The Innovator’s Solution: Creating and Sustaining Successful Growth. Nueva York: Harvard Business Review Press.

Cohen, Julie (1995). «A Right to Read Anonymously: A Closer Look at “Copyright Management” in Cyberspace». Connecticut Law Review, 28.

Cohen, Julie (1998a). «Copyright and the Jurisprudence of Self-Help». Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 13: 1089-1143.

Cohen, Julie (1998b). «Lochner in Cyberspace: The New Economic Orthodoxy of Rights Management». Michigan Law Review, 97 (2).

Coombe, Rosemary (1998). The Cultural Life of Intellectual Properties: Authorship, Appropriation, and the Law. Duke University Press Books.

Craver, Scott y otros (2001). «Reading Between the Lines: Lessons from the SDMI
Challenge». Disponible en <http://www.usenix.org/events/sec01/craver.pdf>.

Crawford, Susan (2003). «The Biology of the Broadcast Flag». Hastings Communications And Entertainment Law Journal, 25 (2): 603-52

Dibona, Chris, Sam Ockman y Mark Stone (1999). Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution. Sebastopol: O’Reilly Media.

Dunn, Ashley (1998). «The Cutting Edge Gift Guide». Los Angeles Times, 30 de noviembre, pág. C6.

Eisenmann, Thomas R., Geoffrey Parker y Marchall van Alstyne (2008). «Opening Platforms: How, When and Why?». Harvard Business School, Working Paper nro. 09-030.

Erickson, John S., y Deirdre K. Mulligan (2004). «The Technical and Legal Dangers of Code-based Fair Use Enforcement». Proceedings of the ieee, 92 (6).

Felten, Edward W. (2005). «DRM and Public Policy». Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery, 48.

Fernando, Gerard, Tom Jacobs y Vishy Swaminathan (2005) «Project dream, an architectural overview». Disponible en <http://www.openmediacommons.org/collateral/DReaM-Overview.pdf>.

Fisher III, William (2004). Promises to Keep. Technology, Law, and the Future of Entertainment. Stanford: Stanford Law and Politics.

Fisher III, William (2007). «When Should We Permit Differential Pricing of Information». ucla Law Review, 55.

Fowler, Geoffrey A. (2009). «An Orwellian Moment for Amazon’s Kindle». Wall Street Journal Blog, 17 de julio de 2009, disponible en <http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2009/07/17/an-orwellian-moment-for-amazons-kindle/>.

Fox, Barbara L., y Brian A. LaMacchia (2003). «Encouraging Recognition of Fair Uses in DRM Systems». Communications Assoc. Computing Mach., 46: 61-3.

Gillespie, Tarleton L. (2006). «Designed to ‘Effectively Frustrate’: Copyright, Technology, and the Agency of Users». Journal New Media Society, 8: 651-69.

Gillespie, Tarleton L. (2007) Wired Shut. Copyright and the Shape of Digital Culture. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Gentile, Gary (2004). «Studios Eye New Anti-piracy Technology». USA Today, 2 de julio. Disponible en <http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/2004-07-02-anti-piracy_x.htm>.

Ginsburg, Jane (2003). «From Having Copies to Experiencing Works: the Development of an Access Right in U.S. Copyright Law». Journal of the Copyright Society of the USA, 50.

Gordon, Wendy (1982). «Fair Use as Market Failure», Columbia Law Review, 82.

Gutmann, Peter (2007). «A Cost Analysis of Windows Vista Content Protection». Disponible en <http://www.cs.auckland.ac.nz/~pgut001/pubs/vista_cost.html>.

Hachman, Mark (2009). «TV Digital Rights Management Surfaces Again», PCMag.com, 4 de noviembre. Disponible en <http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2355382,00.asp>.

Haldermann, J. Alex y Edward W. Felten (2006). «Lessons from the Sony CD DRM Episode». Disponible en <https://jhalderm.com/pub/papers/rootkit-sec06.pdf>.

Hayek, F. A. (1945). «The Use of Knowledge in Society». American Economy Review, 35.

Henkel, Joachim y Eric von Hippel (2004). «Welfare Implications of User Innovation». Journal Technology Transfer, 30.

Hienerth, Christoph (2006). «The Commercialization of User Innovations: The Development of the Rodeo Kayak Industry». Research & Development Management, 36.

Huang, Andrew (2003). Hacking the Xbox. An Introduction to Reverse Engineering. San Francisco: No Starch Press.

Kling, Arnold, y Nick Schulz (2009). From Poverty To Prosperity. Intangible Assets, Hidden Liabilities and the Lasting Triumph over Scarcity. Nueva York: Encounter Books.

Lakhani, Karim, y Eric von Hippel (2003). «How Open Source Software Works: «Free» User- to-user Assistance». Research Policy, 32 (6): 923-43.

Lakhani, Karim y Robert Wolf (2005). «Why Hackers Do What They Do: Understanding Motivation and Effort in Free/Open Source Software Projects». En Joseph Feller, Brian Fitzgerald, Scott A. Hissam y Karim Lakhani (eds.), Perspectives on Free and Open Source Software. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Landro, Laura (2008). «Get Set for Laser Videodisks, Round Two». Wall Street Journal, 6 de diciembre, pág. b1.

Lardner, James (1987). Fast Forward: Hollywood, the Japanese, and the Onslaught of the vcr. Nueva York: W. W. Norton & Co.

Leach, Britt (2007). «Screeners for My Consideration». Veritas, 30 de noviembre. Disponible en <http://www.veritas-anydaynow.com/reconsideringscr.html>.

Lemley, Mark A. (2008). «Ignoring Patents». Michigan State Law Review, 2008 (19).

Lemley, Mark A., y Carl Shapiro (2006). «Patent Holdup and Royalty Stacking», Texas Law Review, 85.

Lerner, Josh y Jean Tirole (2002). «Some Simple Economics of Open Source», The Journal of Industrial Economics, 50.

Lessig, Lawrence (2000). Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace. Nueva York, Basic Books.

Lessig, Lawrence (2005). Free Culture. The Nature and Feature of Creativity. Nueva York: Penguin.

Lessig, Lawrence (2008). Remix. Nueva York: Penguin.

Levine, Robert (2007). «The Death of High Fidelity». Rollingstone.com, 27 de diciembre. Disponible en <http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/17777619/the_death_of_high_fidelity>.

Levy, Steven (2006). The Perfect Thing: How the iPod Shuffles Commerce Culture, and Coolness. Nueva York: Simon & Schuster.

Lewis, Stephen (2004). «How Much Is Stronger DRM Worth?» En L. Jean Camp y Stephen Lewis (eds.), Economics of Information Security. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publihers.

Liebowitz, S. J. y Stephen E. Margolis (1995). «Path Dependence, Lock-in, and History». Journal of Law, Economics & Organization, 11.

Litman, Jessica (2001). Digital Copyright: Protecting Intellectual Property on the Internet. Prometheus Books.

Lüthje, Christian, Cornelius Herstatt y Eric von Hippel (2005). «User-innovators and ‘Local’ Information: The Case of Mountain Biking». Research Policy, 34.

Macaulay, Thomas (1952). «Speech Delivered in the House of Commons on the 5th of February, 1841». En Prose and Poetry (edición de G. M. Young ), Harvard University Press.

Marcom Jr., John (1985). «Sales of Consumer Electronics to Grow Modestly in 1985, Industry Group Says». Wall Street Journal, 7 de enero, pág. 7.

Marks, Dean S., y Bruce H. Thurnbull (1999). Technical Protection Measures: The Intersection of Technology, Law and Commercial Licenses. Génova: WIPO. Disponible en <http://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/copyright/en/wct_wppt_imp/wct_wppt_imp_3.pdf>.

Messmer, Ellen (2010). «Black Hat: Researcher Claims Hack of Processor Used to Secure Xbox 360, Other Products». Network World, 2 de febrero. Disponible en <https://www.networkworld.com/news/2010/020210-black-hat-processor-security.html>.

Meurer, Michael J. (1997). «Price Discrimination, Personal Use and Piracy: Copyright Protection of Digital Works». University at Buffalo School of Law, 45: 845-98.

Milian, Mark (2009). «Which ‘Avatar’ to see? A look at imax, Dolby 3-D, RealD (and, yeah, boring old 2-D)». Los Angeles Times blog, 29 de diciembre. Disponible en <http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/herocomplex/2009/12/which-avatar-to-see-a-look-at-imax-dolby-3d-reald-and-boring-old-2d.html>.

Mulligan, Deirdre K., John Han y Aaron J. Burstein (2003). «How DRM-based Content Delivery Systems Disrupt Expectations of ‘Personal Use’». En Moti Yung (ed.), Digital Rights Management Workshop. Disponible en <http://www.law.berkeley.edu/files/DRM_personal_use.pdf>.

Musgrove, Mike (2001). «Everything Seems to Play MP3s Lately». Washington Post, 7 de diciembre, pág. e1.

Nadel, Mark (2003). «Questioning the Economic Justification for (and thus Constitutionality of) Copyright Law’s Prohibition Against Unauthorized Copying: § 106». AEI-Brookings Joint ctr, Related Publ’n, 3-1. Disponible en <http://www.reg-markets.org/admin/pdffiles/Nadel.pdf>.

Netanel, Neil W. (2001). «Locating Copyright Within the Fair Use in the First Amendment Skein». Stanford Law Review, 54.

Nimmer, David (2003). Copyright: Sacred Text, Technology, and the DMCA. La Haya: Kluwer Law International.

Ohm, Paul (2008). «The Myth of the Superuser: Fear, Risk, and Harm Online», University of California Davis Law Review, 41.

O’Reilly, Tim (2009). «Where Real Innovation Happens». Forbes.com, 2 de febrero. Disponible en <http://www.forbes.com/2009/02/03/innovation-tim-oreilly-technology-breakthroughs_0203oreilly.html>.

Pash, Adam (2007). «Jailbreak Your iPhone or iPod Touch with One Click». Lifehacker, 29 de octubre. Disponible en <http://lifehacker.com/316287/jailbreak-your-iphone-or-ipod-touch-with-one-click/>.

Patrizio, Andy (1999). «Why the DVD Hack Was a Cinch, Wired». Wired, 2 de noviembre. Disponible <http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/1999/11/32263>.

Patry, William (2009). Moral Panics and the Copyright Wars. Nueva York: Oxford University Press.

Picker, Randal (2003). «From Edison to the Broadcast Flag: Mechanisms of Consent and Refusal and the Propertization of Copyright». University of Chicago Law Review, 70.

Picker, Randal (2005). «Copyright and the DMCA: Market Locks and Technological Contracts, in Antitrust». En Francois Leveque y Howard Shelanski (eds.), Antitrust, Patents and Copyrights. EU and US Perspectives. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Popescu, Alin C. y Hany Farid (2004). «Statistical Tools for Digital Forensics». En Jessica Fridrich (ed.), Information Hiding. Nueva York: Springer.

Raasch, Christina, Cornelius Herstatt y Phillip Lock (2008). «The Dynamics of User Innovation», International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, 12.

Raymond, Eric (2001). The Cathedral and the Bazaar. Sebastopol: O’Reilly Media.

Reid, Jason F. y William J. Caelli (2005). «DRM, Trusted Computing and Operating System Architecture», ACSW Frontiers ‘05 Proceedings of the 2005 Australasian Workshop on Grid Computing and e-Research, 44: 127-36. Disponible en <http://crpit.com/confpapers/crpitv44Reid.pdf>.

Samuelson, Pamela (1999). «Intellectual Property and the Digital Economy: Why the Anti-Circumvention Regulations Need to be Revised». Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 14.

Samuelson, Pamela (2001). «Anticircumvention Rules: Threat to Science». Science, 293.

Schechter, Stuart E. y otros (2003). «Trusted Computing, Peer-To-Peer Distribution, and the Economics of Pirated Entertainment». Disponible en <http://www.eecs.harvard.edu/~stuart/papers/eis03.pdf>.

Schneier, Bruce (1996). Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C. Nueva York: John Wiley & Sons.

Schneier, Bruce (2006). «Quickest Patch Ever». Wired News, 7 de septiembre. Disponible en <http://www.wired.com/politics/security/commentary/securitymatters/2006/09/71738>.

Schneier, Bruce (2008). «The Ethics of Vulnerability Research». Info. Security Mag. Disponible en <http://www.schneier.com/essay-211.html>.

Schoen, Seth David (2003). «Trusted Computing, Promise and Risk». The Electronic Frontier Foundation. Disponible en <http://www.eff.org/files/20031001_tc.pdf>.

Schoen, Seth David (2005). «Trusted Computing, Promise and Risk». Disopnible en <http://www.eff.org/files/2003 1001_tc.pdf>.

Seltzer, Wendy (2005a). «The Broadcast Flag: It’s Not Just TV». Federal Communications Law Journal, 57.

Seltzer, Wendy (2005b). «Why Open Source Needs Copyright Politics». En Chris Dibona, Danese Cooper y Mark Stone (eds.), Open Sources 2.0: The Continuing Evolution. Charleston: Nabu Press.

Shapiro, Carl y Hal R. Varian (1998). Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy. Nueva York: Harvard Business School Press.

Shapiro, Carl y Hal R. Varian (1998). Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy. Nueva York: Harvard Business School Press.

Shirky, Clay (2008). Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations. Nueva York: Penguin.

Stefik, Mark (1996). «Letting Loose the Light: Igniting Commerce in Electronic Publication». En Mark Stefik (ed.), Internet Dreams: Myths, and Metaphors. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Stefik, Mark (1997). «Trusted Systems». Scientific American. Disponible en <http://www.sciam.com/0397issue/0397stefik.html>.

Stone, Brad (2009). «Want to Copy iTunes Music? Go Ahead, Apple Says». New York Times, 7 enero, pág. b1.

Taub, Eric A. (2001). «Encryption Schemes Aimed at Film Piracy». New York Times, 30 de agosto, pág. g6.

Turner, Frederick J. (1921). The Frontier in American History.

Viscusi, W. Kip, Joseph E. Harrington y John M. Vernon (2005). Economics of Regulation and Antitrust. 4.ª ed. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

von Hippel, Eric (1988). Sources of Innovation. Nueva York: Oxford University Press.

von Hippel, Eric (1994). «‘Sticky Information’ and the Locus of Problem Solving: Implications for Innovation», Management Science, 40.

von Hippel, Eric (2005). Democratizing Innovation. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

von Lohmann, Fred (2004). «Measuring the Digital Millennium Copyright Act Against the Darknet: Implications for the Regulation of Technological Protection Measures». Loyola of Los Angeles Entertainment Law Review, 24.

von Lohmann, Fred (2005). «Licensing in the Digital Age: The Future of Digital Rights Management». The Fordham Intellectual Property, Media & Entertainment Law Journal, 15.

von Lohmann, Fred (2008). «Fair Use as Innovation Policy». Berkley Technology Law Journal, 23.

von Lohmann, Fred (2010). «Unintended Consequences: Ten Years Under the DMCA». EFF. Disponible en <http://www.eff.org/wp/unintended-consequences-ten-years-under-DMCA/>. [Hay versión en español publicada en Revista Chilena de Derecho Informático, nro. 4, 2004. Disponible en <http://www.derechoinformatico.uchile.cl/index.php/rchdi/article/viewFile/10671/10949>.]

Waterman, David y otros (2007). «Enforcement and Control of Piracy, Copying, and Sharing in the Movie Industry». Rev. Indus. Org., 30.

Wu, Timothy (2004). «Copyright’s Communications Policy». Michigan Law Review, 103.

Wu, Timothy (2006). «Intellectual Property, Innovation, and Decentralized Decisions». Virginia Law Review, 92.

Zittrain, Jonathan (2006). «The Generative Internet». Harvard Law Review, 119: 1974-2040.